Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

The virus is called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)


  1. The Writing Committee for the REMAP-CAP Investigators. Effect of Hydrocortisone on Mortality and Organ Support in Patients With Severe COVID-19The REMAP-CAP COVID-19 Corticosteroid Domain Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;epublished September 2nd
  2. Dequin. Effect of Hydrocortisone on 21-Day Mortality or Respiratory Support Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;epublished September 2nd
  3. Tomazini. Effect of Dexamethasone on Days Alive and Ventilator-Free in Patients With Moderate or Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and COVID-19. The CoDEX Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;epublished September 2nd
  4. The WHO Rapid Evidence Appraisal for COVID-19 Therapies (REACT) Working Group. Association Between Administration of Systemic Corticosteroids and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. A Meta-analysis. JAMA 2020;epublished September 2nd
  5. Cavalcanti. Hydroxychloroquine with or without Azithromycin in Mild-to-Moderate Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished July 23rd
  6. The RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished July 17th
  7. Li. Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Time to Clinical Improvement in Patients With Severe and Life-threatening COVID-19. A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2020;epublished June 3rd
  8. Boulware. A Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine as Postexposure Prophylaxis for Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished June 3rd
  9. Goldman. Remdesivir for 5 or 10 Days in Patients with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished May 27th
  10. Cao. Ruxolitinib in treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial, J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020;epublished May 26th
  11. Beigel. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished May 22nd
  12. Wang. Remdesivir in adults with severe COVID-19: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet 2020;epublished April 29th
  13. Hung. Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2020;395(10238):1695-1704
  14. Cao. A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 18th
  15. Wu. High-flow nasal-oxygenation-assisted fibreoptic tracheal intubation in critically ill patients with COVID-19 pneumonia: a prospective randomised controlled trial. Br J Anaesth 2020;epublished March 19th
  1. Carfì. Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19. JAMA 2020;epublished July 9th
  2. Paterson. The emerging spectrum of COVID-19 neurology: clinical, radiological and laboratory findings. Brain 2020;epublished July 8th
  3. Pollán. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study. Lancet 2020;epublished July 6th
  4. Feng. COVID-19 with Different Severity: A Multi-center Study of Clinical Features. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020;epublished April 10th
  5. Klok. Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thrombosis Research 2020;epublished April 10th
  6. Shao. In-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Resuscitation 2020;epublished April 10th
  7. Grasselli. Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected With SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy. JAMA 2020;epublished April 6th
  8. Du. Clinical Features of 85 Fatal Cases of COVID-19 from Wuhan: A Retrospective Observational Study. Am J Respir Crit Care 2020;epublished April 3rd
  9. Zhou. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet 2020;395(10229):1054-1062
  10. Bhatraju. Covid-19 in Critically Ill Patients in the Seattle Region — Case Series. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 30th
  11. Wang. The experience of high-flow nasal cannula in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in two hospitals of Chongqing, China. Annals of Intensive Care 2020;10:37
  12. Chang. Time Kinetics of Viral Clearance and Resolution of Symptoms in Novel Coronavirus Infection. Am J Respir Crit Care 2020;epublished March 23rd
  13. Zeng. Antibodies in Infants Born to Mothers With COVID-19 Pneumonia. JAMA 2020;epublished March 26th
  14. Dong. Possible Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 From an Infected Mother to Her Newborn. JAMA 2020;epublished March 26th
  15. Arentz. Characteristics and Outcomes of 21 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 in Washington State. JAMA 2020;epublished March 19th
  16. Pung. Investigation of three clusters of COVID-19 in Singapore: implications for surveillance and response measures. Lancet 2020;epublished March 16th
  17. Li. Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1199-1207
  18. Cao. Clinical features and short‑term outcomes of 18 patients with corona virus disease 2019 in intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished March 2nd
  19. Guan. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished February 28th
  20. Lan. Positive RT-PCR Test Results in Patients Recovered From COVID-19. JAMA 2020;epublished February 27th
  21. Pan. Challenges and countermeasures for organ donation during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic: the experience of Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished February 25th
  22. Wu. Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. Summary of a Report of 72 314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. JAMA 2020;epublished February 24th
  23. Wei. Novel Coronavirus Infection in Hospitalized Infants Under 1 Year of Age in China. JAMA 2020;epublished February 14th
  24. Bai. Presumed Asymptomatic Carrier Transmission of COVID-19. JAMA 2020;epublished February 21st
  25. Huang. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020;395(10223):497-506
  26. Chen. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020;395(10223)P507-513
  27. Chan. A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster. Lancet 2020;395(10223):514-523
  28. Zhu. A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med 2020;382:727-733


  1. Folegatti. Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2020;epublished July 20th
  2. Zhu. Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant adenovirus type-5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine in healthy adults aged 18 years or older: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. Lancet 2020;epublished July 20th
  3. Jackson. An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished July 14th

Prone Positioning

  1. Elharrar. Use of Prone Positioning in Nonintubated Patients With COVID-19 and Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure. JAMA 2020;epublished May 15th

Convalescent Plasma

  1. Shen. Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma. JAMA 2020;epublished March 27th
  2. Zhang. Treatment with convalescent plasma for critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chest 2020;epublished March 31st


  1. Geleris. Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished May 7th
  2. Mahévas. Clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients with covid-19 pneumonia who require oxygen: observational comparative study using routine care data. BMJ 2020;369:m1844 
  3. Rosenberg. Association of Treatment With Hydroxychloroquine or Azithromycin With In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York State. JAMA 2020;epublished May 11th
  4. Geleris. Observational Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished May 7th

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

  1. Sanchez-Guijo. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. A proof of concept study, EClinicalMedicine 2020;epublished July 10th



  1. Wiersinga. Pathophysiology, Transmission, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). A Review. JAMA 2020;epublished July 10th
  2. Harapan. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A literature review,Journal of Infection and Public Health 2020;epublished April 8th
  3. Lupia. 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak: A new challenge. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance 2020;21:22-27
  4. Phua. Intensive care management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): challenges and recommendations. Lancet 2020;epublished April 6th
  5. Shah. Guide to Understanding the 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Mayo Clin Proc 2020;95(4):646–652
  6. Sahu. Comprehensive update on current outbreak of novel coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV). Ann Transl Med 2020;8(6):393
  7. Wujtewicz. COVID-19 - what should anaethesiologists and intensivists know about it? Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2020;epublished March 20th
  8. del Rio. COVID-19—New Insights on a Rapidly Changing Epidemic. JAMA 2020;epublished February 28th
  9. Shanmugaraj. Emergence of Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: Need for Rapid Vaccine and Biologics Development. Pathogens 2020;9(2):148
  10. Lai. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): The epidemic and the challenges. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;epublished February 17th
  11. Wax. Practical recommendations for critical care and anesthesiology teams caring for novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) patients. Can J Anesth 2020;epublished February 12th
  12. Peng. Outbreak of a new coronavirus: what anaesthetists should know. Br J Anaesth 2020;epublished February 11th
  13. Arabi. Critical care management of adults with community-acquired severe respiratory viral infection. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished February 10th


  1. Gupta. Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Nat Med 2020;epublished July 10th
  2. Petrosillo. COVID-19,SARS and MERS: are they closely related? Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2020;epublished March 28th
  3. Harb. SARS, MERS, COVID-19: Clinical Manifestations and Organ-System Complications: A Mini Review. Pathog Dis 2020;epublished July 7th
  4. Leung. Clinical features of deaths in the novel coronavirus epidemic in China. Rev Med Virol 2020;e2103
  5. Li. The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may be at least partially responsible for the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol 2020;epublished February 27th


  1. Garg. Spectrum of Neurological Manifestations in Covid-19: A Review. Neurol India 2020;68(3):560-572
  2. Robinson. Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Respiratory Viral Contagions. Crit Care Expl 2020;2:e0107


  1. Imazio. COVID-19 pandemic and troponin: indirect myocardial injury, myocardial inflammation or myocarditis? Heart 2020;106:1127-1131
  2. Kang. Cardiovascular manifestations and treatment considerations in COVID-19. Heart 2020;106:1132-1141
  3. Fried. The Variety of Cardiovascular Presentations of COVID-19. Circulation 2020;epublished April 3rd
  4. Xiong. Coronaviruses and the cardiovascular system:acute and long-term implications. European Heart Journal 2020;0:1–3
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
  1. Gheblawi. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System. Circulation Research 2020;epublished April 8th
  2. Vaduganathan. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 30thN Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 30th


  1. Calabrese. Pulmonary Pathology and COVID-19: Lessons From Autopsy. The Experience of European Pulmonary Pathologists. Virchows Arch 2020;epublished July 9th


  1. D’Amico. Diarrhea during COVID-19 infection: pathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention and management. Clin Gastro Hepatol 2020;epublished April 8th


  1. Ronco. Kidney involvement in COVID-19 and rationale for extracorporeal therapies. Nat Rev Nephrol 2020;epublished April 9th

Immune System

  1. Lingeswaran. Inflammation, Immunity and Immunogenetics in COVID-19: A Narrative Review. Indian J Clin Biochem 2020;35(3):260-273
  2. Guihot. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to COVID-19 Infection. Front Immunol 2020;11:1662
  3. Lingeswaran. Inflammation, Immunity and Immunogenetics in COVID-19: A Narrative Review. Indian J Clin Biochem 2020;35(3):260-273

Pharmacotherapy - General

  1. Horie. Emerging pharmacological therapies for ARDS: COVID-19 and beyond. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished July 11th
  2. Giovane. Current pharmacological modalities for management of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the rationale for their utilization: A review. Rev Med Virol 2020;epublished July 9th
  3. Song. COVID-19 Treatment: Close to a Cure? – A Rapid Review of Pharmacotherapies for the Novel Coronavirus. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020;epublished July 4th
  4. Crosby. COVID‐19: A review of therapeutics under investigation. JACEP Open 2020;1(3):231-237
  5. Barlow. Review of Emerging Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019. Pharmacotherapy 2020;epublished April 7th

Anti-Inflammatory Therapy

  1. Zhang. The Use of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in the Treatment of People With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): The Experience of Clinical Immunologists From China. Clin Immunol 2020;epublished March 25th


  1. Ramanathan. Planning and provision of ECMO services for severe ARDS during the COVID-19 pandemic and other outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases. Lancet Respir Med 2020;epublished March 20th

Stem Cells & GM-CSF

  1. Saldanha-Araujo. Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Piece in the Puzzle of COVID-19 Treatment. Front. Immunol. 11:1563
  2. Bonaventura. Targeting GM-CSF in COVID-19 Pneumonia: Rationale and Strategies. Front Immunol 2020;11:1625

Renal Replacement Therapy

  1. Raza. Acute Renal Failure in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients With a Focus on the Role of Renal Replacement Therapy: A Review of What We Know So Far. Cureus. 2020 Jun; 12(6): e8429
  2. Ponce. Acute peritoneal dialysis in the treatment of COVID-19-related acute kidney injury. Clin Kidney J 2020;epublished June 30th


  1. Thomas. Physiotherapy management for COVID-19 in the acute hospital setting: clinical practice recommendations. J Physiotherapy 2020;epublished March 30th


  1. Emanuel. Fair Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources in the Time of Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 23rd


  1. Horten. Offline: COVID-19—a reckoning. Lancet 2020;395(10228):935
  2. Horton. Offline: COVID-19 and the NHS—“a national scandal”. Lancet 2020;395(10228):1022
  3. Webster. Canada and COVID-19: learning from SARS. Lancet 2020;395(10228):936-937
  4. Bachireddy. Securing the Safety Net and Protecting Public Health During a Pandemic. Medicaid’s Response to COVID-19. JAMA 2020;epublished March 19th
  5. Parmet. Covid-19 - The Law and Limits of Quarantine. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 18th
  6. Rosenbaum. Facing Covid-19 in Italy — Ethics, Logistics, and Therapeutics on the Epidemic’s Front Line. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished March 18th
  7. Xiao. Taking the right measures to control COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;epublished March 5th
  8. Arabi. COVID-19: a novel coronavirus and a novel challenge for critical care. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished March 3rd
  9. Zhang. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic target. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished March 3rd
  10. Wang. Response to COVID-19 in Taiwan. Big Data Analytics, New Technology, and Proactive Testing. JAMA 2020;epublished March 3rd
  11. Adalja. Priorities for the US Health Community Responding to COVID-19. JAMA 2020;epublished March 3rd
  12. Lippi. Laboratory abnormalities in patients with COVID-2019 infection. Clin Chem Lab Med 2020;epublished March 3rd
  13. Peckham. COVID-19 and the anti-lessons of history. Lancet 2020;epublished March 2nd
  14. Xie. Critical care crisis and some recommendations during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished March 2nd
  15. Olson. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults With Community-Acquired Pneumonia. JAMA 2020;323(9):885-886
  16. Zhang. Clinical trials for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A rapid response to urgent need. Sci China Life Sci 2020;epublished February 29th
  17. Chen. From SARS-CoV to 2019-nCoV Outbreak: Similarities in the Early Epidemics and Prediction of Future Trends. Chin Med J 2020;epublished February 28th
  18. del Rio. COVID-19—New Insights on a Rapidly Changing Epidemic. JAMA 2020;epublished February 28th
  19. Gates. Responding to Covid-19 — A Once-in-a-Century Pandemic? N Engl J Med 2020;epublished February 28th
  20. Chen. Convalescent plasma as a potential therapy for COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;epublished February 27th
  21. Nkengasong. Looming threat of COVID-19 infection in Africa: act collectively, and fast. Lancet 2020;epublished February 27th
  22. Stebbing. COVID-19: combining antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatments. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;epublished February 27th
  23. Morens. Escaping Pandora’s Box — Another Novel Coronavirus. N Engl J Med 2020;epublished February 26th
  24. Bouadma. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infections: practical considerations and management strategy for intensivists. Intensive Care Med 2020;epublished February 26th
  25. Jiang. The First Disease X is Caused by a Highly Transmissible Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. Virologica Sinica 2020;epublished February 14th
  26. Guo. Old Weapon for New Enemy: Drug Repurposing for Treatment of Newly Emerging Viral Diseases. Virologica Sinica 2020;epublished February 11th
  27. Wu. Compensation of ACE2 Function for Possible Clinical Management of 2019-nCoV-Induced Acute Lung Injury. Virologica Sinica 2020;epublished February 7th
  28. Qiao. What are the risks of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women? Lancet 2020;395(10226):760-762
  29. Ghebreyesus. Scientists are sprinting to outpace the novel coronavirus. Lancet 2020;395(10226):762-764
  30. Chen. COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year. Lancet 2020;395(10226):764-766
  31. Wong. COVID-19 in Singapore—Current Experience. Critical Global Issues That Require Attention and Action. JAMA 2020;epublished February 20th
  32. MacLaren. Preparing for the Most Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. The Potential Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. JAMA 2020;epublished February 19th
  33. Swerdlow. Preparation for Possible Sustained Transmission of 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Lessons From Previous Epidemics. JAMA 2020;epublished February 11th
  34. del Rio. 2019 Novel Coronavirus—Important Information for Clinicians. JAMA 2020;epublished February 5th
  35. Battegay.  2019-Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): estimating the case fatality rate: a word of caution. Swiss Med Wkly 2020;150:w20203
  36. McCloskey. SARS to novel coronavirus: old lessons and new lessons. Epidemiol Infect 2020;148:e22
  37. Russell. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet 2020;395(10223):473-475
  38. Phelan. The Novel Coronavirus Originating in Wuhan, China. Challenges for Global Health Governance. JAMA 2020;323(8):709-710
  39. Paules. Coronavirus Infections—More Than Just the Common Cold. JAMA 2020;323(8):707-708